Kidneys work as the filters of our body. While the blood is filtered over kidneys beneficial materials are absorbed and undesirable materials are removed by urine. If the urine is so dense the possibility of renal calculus generating risk increase. Removed salts and minerals in dense urine comprises sediments by the time in the surface of tubule units like crystals. These crystals are merged by the time and become renal calculus.  


Renal calculus disease (nephrolithiasis) is called existing of higher levels of calcium (hyper calcify), oxalate (hyperkzalury) or uric acid (hyperuricosory) and less amount of citrates which prevents them to merge each other and occurs due to insufficient liquid intake. This process is resembles to pearl formation. A small piece of sand enters the oyster and becomes a pearl by the time.

Sizes of calculus could vary from a small rice piece up to a tangerine. Risk factors of calculus formations are mainly: insufficient fluid intake, having a calculus event in family, growth age, some kidney and systemic diseases, higher animal protein and less fibrous nutrition, standing still.     


What are the complaints of renal calculus?


Most of the renal calculus doesn’t give any finding and diagnosed by radiologic examination which was made for another reason. It could cause infection if the calculus is bigger and caused obstruction in renal pelvis. It could cause an intense pain which is called colic by preventing urination if the calculus enters canal between the kidney and bladder. Pain spread through inguinal beginning from waist area and cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal swelling and additional plaints. Bleeding in urination could be observed relating the damage of bladder by calculus.    


Lithotripsy-ESWL ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy)-  (external body Lithotripsy with shock waves) is the most common and reliable method used for renal calculus in our day. This method works by sending shock waves to renal calculus and breaking it with small pieces which doesn’t damage environmental tissues contrary to open surgery method.

Renal calculus are splintered into small pieces like sand and removed by urination. ESWL which enables remove of renal calculus unnecessarily to surgery is the riskless, cheap and comfort method comparing to surgery. Recovery period is as short as not to compare with surgery.  


ESWL (Lithotripsy) devices produce high pressure shock waves. These shock waves run through the soft tissues without any damage and arrives renal calculus after passing kidney. Energy is revealed in the border of calculus and expands this calculus so that cause small cracks around it. The same effect is formed while exiting from the calculus. Small cracks are formed inside the large cracks by effective shocks. Repetitive shock waves cause the calculus downsize and leave the kidneys as enabling the body remove them by urination.